Four factors :-

One could discern four factors behind the upswing in the Congress’s fortunes in Gujarat, and these may well constitute the core ingredients for a pan-India revival too. The first is Rahul Gandhi’s comfort level in a leadership role. Never before has he looked as relaxed and confident as he did leading from the front in Gujarat. For long he has been mocked as a bumblingneophyte lacking the commitment necessary for the rigours of electoral politics. But as he travelled across Gujarat, addressing nearly 30 rallies, gone was the diffident dilettante mouthing ghost-written speeches. Instead, what the people saw was a politician who was earnest, did not act like the entitled dynast he was said to be, and was eager to listen. The second is Mr. Gandhi’s capacity for self-effacement, which enabled him to bring together competing political egos for a larger cause. Hardik Patel, Alpesh Thakor and Jignesh Mevani are massively popular, ambitious youth leaders representing different constituencies and whose political agendas are often mutually contradictory. What united them under the auspices of the Congress was their readiness to trust Mr. Gandhi. It is difficult to think of another Congress politician who could have pulled off this remarkable social coalition — remarkable because it was based not on a cynical caste calculus but on substantive issues such as employment, educational opportunities, unfair taxation, land rights, and agrarian distress. The third element, unlike the others, is a work in progress: organisational presence on the ground. The Congress mostly managed this by drawing on pre-existing mobilisations such as the Patidar movement. But one instance where it came a cropper was Surat. The textile city had become the epicentre of anti-Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) anger in Gujarat. But the crowds that turned up for Mr. Patel’s rallies in Surat did not translate into votes. The Congress’s near-absence at the ground level and the BJP’s superiority in booth management and financial firepower made all the difference as the latter swept the city, winning 15 of the 16 seats. The Surat phenomenon is bound to repeat itself unless Mr. Gandhi fixes the rot in the middle and lower rungs of the party and turns them into reliable cogs in the organisational machinery. Last, and most critical to the Congress’s electoral prospects, is the articulation of an alternative politics that is credible, imaginative, and connects with the masses. And it is here that Mr. Gandhi has surprised everyone. His speech after taking over as Congress president offered the clearest glimpse to date into his vision of politics. Though not a full-fledged narrative, the outline suggested by his pronouncements has the potential to serve as an alternative pole of mobilisation and affective investment.


Meaning: Distinguish (someone or something) with difficulty by sight or with the other senses.

Example: “she could faintly discern the shape of a skull”

Synonyms: Perceive, Detect

Antonyms: Overlook, Miss


Meaning: An increase in strength or quantity; an upward trend.

Example: “an upswing in economic activity”


Meaning: Tease or laugh at in a scornful or contemptuous manner.

Example: “opposition MPs mocked the government’s decision”

Synonyms: Ridicule, Deride

Antonyms: Friendly, Open


Meaning: Move or act in an awkward or confused manner.

Example: “they bumbled around the house”

Synonyms: Blunder, Stumble

Antonyms: Efficient, Expert


Meaning: A person who is new to a subject or activity.

Example: “four-day cooking classes are offered to neophytes and experts”

Synonyms: Beginner, Learner


Meaning: The quality of being extremely thorough and careful.

Example: “his analysis is lacking in rigour”

Synonyms: Accuracy, Diligence

Antonyms: Carelessness


Meaning: Modest or shy because of a lack of self-confidence.

Example: “a diffident youth”

Synonyms: Shy, Modest

Antonyms: Confident, Conceited


Meaning: A person who cultivates an area of interest, such as the arts, without real commitment or knowledge.

Example: “there is no room for the dilettante in this business”

Synonyms: Amateur, Non-professional


Meaning: Say (something dull or unoriginal), especially in a pompous or affected way.

Example: “this clergyman mouths platitudes in breathy, soothing tones”

Synonyms: Utter, Speak


Meaning: A member of a powerful family, especially a hereditary ruler.

Example: The temples were founded by foreign dynasts.



Meaning: Not making yourself noticeable, or not trying to get the attention of other people.

Example: The captain was typically self-effacing when questioned about the team’s successes, giving credit to the other players.

Synonyms: Modest

  1. Auspices

Meaning: With the protection or support of someone or something, especially an organization.

Example: Financial aid is being provided to the country under the auspices of the International Monetary Fund.

Synonyms: Guard, Protection


Meaning: A temporary alliance for combined action, especially of political parties forming a government.

Example: “a coalition between Liberals and Conservatives”

Synonyms: Alliance, Union


Meaning: “most residents are cynical about efforts to clean mobsters out of their city”

Example: “most residents are cynical about efforts to clean mobsters out of their city”

Synonyms:  Sceptical, Doubtful

Antonyms: Optimistic, Credulous


Meaning: An agrarian place or country makes its money from farming rather than industry.

Example: This part of the country is mainly agrarian.

16.Drawing on

Meaning: To use information or your knowledge of something to help you do something.

Example: His novels draw heavily on his childhood.


Meaning: The central point of something, typically a difficult or unpleasant situation.

Example: “the epicentre of labour militancy was the capital itself”


Meaning: A level in a hierarchical structure, especially a class or career structure.

Example: “we must ensure that the low-skilled do not get trapped on the bottom rung”


Meaning: Abbreviation for cost of goods sold: the costs directly related to producing goods, rather than overheads (= regular costs, such as rent and heating); copy (someone else’s work) illicitly or without acknowledgement.

Example: The company’s gross profit margin, or sales minus COGS, rose from a year ago.


Meaning: The action of putting into words an idea or feeling.

Example: “it would involve the articulation of a theory of the just war”

Synonyms: Expression, Assertion


Meaning: See or perceive briefly or partially.

Example: “he glimpsed a figure standing in the shade”

Synonyms: Sight, Notice

  1. Pronouncements

Meaning: A formal or authoritative announcement or declaration.

Example: “distrust of the pronouncements of politicians was endemic”

Synonyms: Announcement, Proclamation


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