PARAGRAPH,WORDS AND MEANINGS

0
17

Topic Of The Day:-“Deep State, Deeper Problems: Pakistan

Whatever their outcome, Pakistan’s general election scheduled for July 25 is unlikely to change four fundamental realities. First, Pakistan’s military-led establishment will continue to wield effective power, drawing strength from allegations of incompetence and corruption against civilian politicians. Second, civilian politicians will continue to justify their incompetence and corruption by invoking the spectre of military intervention in politics. Third, jihadis and other religious extremists will continue to benefit from the unwillingness of the military and the judiciary to target them as well as the temptation of politicians to benefit from their support. Fourth and finally, Pakistan’s international isolation and economic problems, stemming from its ideological direction and mainstreaming of extremism will not end.

The conviction of former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif by an accountability court last Friday has set the stage for him to portray himself as the latest martyr for democracy. He has argued, as others have done before him, that he is being punished not for corruption but for standing up to Pakistan’s invisible government — the military-intelligence combine that has dominated the country effectively since 1958.

His supporters are willing to ignore the fact that Mr. Sharif’s own political career was launched by the Pakistan Army and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), and the likelihood that allegations of unusual expansion of the Sharif fortune since the family’s advent in politics are true.

MEANINGS AND WORDS

1) Wield

Meaning: Have and be able to use (power or influence).

Example: “Faction leaders wielded enormous influence within the party”

Synonyms: Exercise, Exert

2) Allegations

Meaning: A claim or assertion that someone has done something illegal or wrong, typically one made without proof.

Example: “He made allegations of corruption against the administration”

Synonyms: Claim, Assertion  

3) Invoking

Meaning: Cite or appeal to (someone or something) as an authority for an action or in support of an argument.

Example: “The antiquated defence of insanity is rarely invoked in England”

Synonyms: Cite, Adduce  

Antonyms: Waive

4) Spectre

Meaning: Something widely feared as a possible unpleasant or dangerous occurrence.

Example: “The spectre of nuclear holocaust”

Synonyms: Threat, Menace  

5) Intervention

Meaning: Interference by a state in another’s affairs.

Example: “The government was reported to be considering military intervention”

Synonyms: Involvement, Intercession

6) Temptation

Meaning: The desire to do something, especially something wrong or unwise.

Example: “He resisted the temptation to call Celia at the office”

Synonyms: Desire, Urge  

7) Ideological

Meaning: Based on or relating to a system of ideas and ideals, especially concerning economic or political theory and policy.

Example: “The ideological struggle that underpinned the cold war”

8) Extremism

Meaning: The holding of extreme political or religious views; fanaticism.

Example: “The dangers of religious extremism”

Synonyms: Fanaticism, Radicalism  

Antonyms: Moderation

9) Conviction

Meaning: A formal declaration by the verdict of a jury or the decision of a judge in a court of law that someone is guilty of a criminal offence.

Example: “She had a previous conviction for a similar offence”

Synonyms: Sentence, Judgement  

Antonyms: Acquittal

10) Martyr

Meaning: A person who suffers very much or is killed because of their religious or political beliefs, and is often admired because of it.

Example: “She fought against racism all her life and died a martyr to the cause”

11) Standing up

Meaning: If an idea or some information stands up, it is proved to be true or correct.

Example: “Their argument won’t stand up to detailed criticism”