Topic of the day:-“Question of cooperation”

Some of the well-known referendums on independence that were held in recent years include the ones in Scotland in 2014, South Sudan in 2011 and Quebec (Canada) in 1995. The first two were outcomes of agreements with the Central governments in the U.K. and Sudan, respectively. The Quebec vote was the outcome of a provincial decision, which however resulted in failure for secessionists. The two referendums in Iraq’s only autonomous region, of Kurdistan (held on September 25) and in the Catalonia autonomous province in Spain (to be held on October 1) follow the Quebec model — without the stamp of approval or an agreement with national government in Iraq and Spain, respectively. The question of legitimacy of referendums is important and it is automatically provided if the Centre concedes this mechanism on such issues. Central acquiescence to the process of a referendum to decide or infer opinions on sovereignty also allows for a true campaign on both sides of the yes/ no positions in the referendum. This is not the case with the Catalonian and the Kurdish referendums, which means that a “yes” outcome would not necessarily push the envelope in the direction of secession in a peaceful manner. Legitimacy apart, on the face of it, there is a common thread in these two referendums. The rulers of Iraqi Kurdistan sought the nonbinding referendum as a step towards independence from “Arab” Iraq. The dominant parties in Catalonia also have a similar aim — framing the binding yes/no vote for independence as a decisive step towards the formation of a new republic, independent of Madrid. But the similarities end there — in the tactics used by these pro-secession forces from the nation-states of Iraq and Spain.


1) Concerted

Meaning: Jointly arranged or carried out; coordinated.

Example: “a concerted attempt to preserve religious unity”

Synonyms: Joint, United

Antonyms: separate, Individual

2) Garner

Meaning: Gather or collect (something, especially information or approval).

Example: “the police struggled to garner sufficient evidence”

Synonyms: Gather, Collect

3) Write up

Meaning: A written account, in particular a newspaper article giving an opinion or review of an event, performance, or product.

Example: “we had a good write-up in yesterday’s paper”

4) Ensuring

Meaning: Make certain of obtaining or providing (something).

Example: “legislation to ensure equal opportunities for all”

Synonyms: Safeguard, Protect

5) Tenets

Meaning: a principle or belief, especially one of the main principles of a religion or philosophy.

Example: “the tenets of classical liberalism”

Synonyms: Principle, Precept

6) Intended

Meaning: Planned or meant.

Example: “the intended victim escaped”

Synonyms: Calculated, Deliberate

Antonyms: Accidental

7) Resistance

Meaning: The refusal to accept or comply with something; the use of force or violence to oppose someone or something.

Example: “government forces were unable to crush guerrilla-style resistance”

Synonyms: Opposition, Battle

Antonyms: Submission, Surrender

8) Stunning

Meaning: Extremely impressive or attractive.

Example: “she looked stunning”

Synonyms: Remarkable, Extraordinary

Antonyms: Unattractive, Ordinary

9) Exacerbating

Meaning: Make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse.

Example: “the exorbitant cost of land in urban areas only exacerbated the problem”

Synonyms: Aggravate, Worsen

Antonyms: Calm, Reduce

10) Sloganeering

Meaning: Employ or invent slogans, typically in a political context.

Example: “at least he avoided vapid sloganeering”

11) Embarrassing

Meaning: Causing embarrassment.

Example: “an embarrassing muddle”

Synonyms: Shameful, Degrading

12) Anxiety

Meaning: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease about something with an uncertain outcome.

Example: “he felt a surge of anxiety”

Synonyms: Worry, Concern

Antonyms: Calmness, Serenity

13) Overhaul

Meaning: Take apart (a piece of machinery or equipment) in order to examine it and repair it if necessary.

Example: “the steering box was recently overhauled”

Synonyms: Service, Maintain

14) Suffice

Meaning: Be enough or adequate.

Example: “a quick look should suffice”

Synonyms: Serve, Enough

15) Squabbling

Meaning: Quarrel noisily over a trivial matter.

Example: “the boys were squabbling over a ball”

Synonyms: Quarrel, Argue

16) Recalibration

Meaning: To change the way you do or think about something

Example: You need to recalibrate your expectations.

Synonyms: Rebuke, Reboot

17) Immigration

Meaning: The action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country.

Example: “a barrier to control illegal immigration from Mexico”

18) Blunt

Meaning: Weaken or reduce the force of (something).

Example: “their determination had been blunted”

Synonyms: Dull, Dampen

Antonyms: Intensify, Sharpen

19) Provincial

Meaning: Of or concerning a province of a country or empire.

Example: “provincial elections”

Synonyms: Country, Regional

Antonyms: National, Metropolitan

20) Concedes

Meaning: Admit or agree that something is true after first denying or resisting it.

Example: “I had to concede that I’d overreacted”

Synonyms: Admit, Accept

Antonyms: Deny