PARAGRAPH,WORDS AND MEANINGS

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TOPIC – Positive climate
India’s frontline position as third highest emitter of greenhouse gases has sharpened focus on its future policy course to mitigate carbon emissions under the Paris Agreement. It has an irrefutable claim to a big part of the remaining global carbon budget, along with other smaller nations with low historical emissions, but room for maneuvering has shrunk in a world facing record temperatures and calamitous weather events. There is escalating pressure for India to commit itself to a date when it can achieve net-zero — removing as much GHGs as it emits — on the lines of the goal set by the U.S. and the European Union for mid-century, and 2060 by China. Declaring a net-zero plan under the Paris pact is a disquieting prospect since it would impose expensive choices, particularly in energy production. That conundrum has been addressed, at least partially, by visiting U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry, with the promise of financing and technology to make renewable energy the core of future development. Specific areas of cooperation to bring down emissions — in the expansion of transport, buildings, and industry — and facilitating funding for 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030 can advance the Indian U. S. Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 Partnership. More clarity on the bilateral road map towards emissions reduction may come at the COP26 conference in November. India, meanwhile, needs to get all States to mitigate emissions and help them adapt to climate-linked extreme weather and atmospheric pollution caused by fossil fuels. At the end of 2020, a year marked by COVID19 and many destructive storms, the Union Environment Ministry declared that the country had achieved 21% of its 33%35% target to cut emissions intensity of GDP by 2030, and, similarly, was generating 37.9% of the 40% of power from renewable. Though encouraging, the immediate challenge lies in coming up with an adaptation framework to help those at highest risk — the millions living in the path of annual cyclones, including residents of populous coastal cities. Raising the ability of city administrations to handle tens of millions of liters of water regularly dumped in just a few days requires planning, funding and political commitment. Making low-cost insurance available for houses against climate-related losses will raise resilience, and lead to audits, encouraging governments to reduce risks. The Paris Agreement can easily fund much-needed urban retrofitting and boost employment. There is also a health imperative. Heat stress has a severe impact, causing higher mortality among the vulnerable elderly. These are growing problems, but they also represent an opportunity to steer postCOVID19 policies towards benign, green development. For a low emissions future, policies must put nature at the centre.MEANINGS AND WORDS

Mitigate (verb) – Make (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful

Synonyms – Alleviate, lessen, soothe, relieve, assuage

Antonyms –Aggravate, provoke, rouse, agitate, intensify

 

Irrefutable (adjective) – Impossible to deny or disprove

Synonyms – Indisputable, impregnable, indubitable, unquestionable, unassailable

Antonyms – Disputable, uncertain, dubious, indefinite, doubtful

 

Maneuvering (verb) – Move skillfully or carefully

Synonyms – Artifice, feint, ruse, stratagem, trick

Antonyms – Undock, follow, disorient, gradual, refrain

 

Shrunk (verb) – Become or make smaller in size or amount

Synonyms – Compress, condense, constrict, contract, deflate

Antonyms – Chivalric, dauntless, gallant, intrepid, valiant

 

Conundrum (noun) – A confusing and difficult problem or question

Synonyms – Enigma, mystification, grabbers, inscrutabilities, rebuses

Antonyms –Axiom, explanation, proposition, solution

 

Adaptation (verb) – The act or process of changing to better suit a situation

Synonyms – Tailoring, transformation, revamping, modification, converting

Antonyms – Stagnation, idleness, remission, reprieve, suspension

 

Dumped (verb) – To put down or drop something in a careless way

Synonyms –Discard, chuck, evacuate, expel, drain

Antonyms –Conceal, retain, continue, load, maintain

 

Retrofitting (verb) – Provide (something) with a component or accessory not fitted during manufacture

Synonyms –Reedifying, confecting, piecing, rearing, erecting

Antonyms –Demounting, dismantling, striking, disassembling

 

Imperative (adjective) – Of vital importance; crucial

Synonyms –Peremptory, magisterial, autocratic, assertive, authoritative

Antonyms –Unimportant, submissive, discretionary, inconsequential