PARGRAPH WORDS AND MEANINGS

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Topic Of The Day :-“Hiv Reality Check”

Two Lives, Of A Donor And A Recipient, Are Devastated By Lapses In Blood Screening

A 23-year-old pregnant woman in Tamil Nadu tested positive for HIV after receiving a unit of blood at a government hospital blood bank, indicating glaring lapses in screening procedures. The blood was donated on November 30 and transfused to the pregnant woman on December 3. Testing all donated blood units for a number of transfusion-transmissible infections, including HIV, is mandatory in India. The ELISA test used in all blood banks to screen for HIV has very high levels of sensitivity to diagnose samples positive for the virus. It can be said with certainty that the blood bank had failed to screen the blood for HIV. The question of testing the donated blood for HIV during the window period (the time between potential exposure to HIV and when the test reveals for sure if the person has HIV) does not arise as the donor’s HIV-positive status became known in 2016 when he donated blood at the same blood bank. Since 2004, prior to donation, all blood banks are required to obtain from donors written consent as to whether they wish to be informed about a positive test result. In case a donor tests positive for HIV, blood banks are required to refer the donors to designated voluntary counselling and testing centres (VCTCs) for disclosure and counselling. That the blood bank tried but failed to contact the donor in 2016 indicates that the donor had consented to be informed of a positive result. In a further tragictwist, he found out elsewhere that he was HIV-positive, and dutifully contacted the hospital on December 10, but his blood had already been transfused by then. On Sunday he passed away after consuming poison.Studies show that blood banks in India have a success rate of less than 50% in contacting donors who have tested positive for transfusion-transmissible infections.Under the 2004 National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) Action Plan, VCTCs are required to inform the blood bank of a donor’s HIV-positive status to stop the person from donating blood in the future only when the confirmatory test done at the VCTC too is positive. Since only half of the consented donors are contactable and even fewer visit a VCTC, it is imperative that NACO finds a viable alternative without compromising the donor’s identity. The focus should also be on creating awareness among donors to visit a VCTC to confirm their HIV status when alerted by blood banks. After all, timely confirmation helps donors start on early treatment to keep the virus under check and take precautionary measures to reduce the risk of infecting their partners and others through sexual and other kinds of contact and through blood donation. After winning aprotracted battle to keep away professional donors from donating blood by encouragingvoluntary donation, it is time blood banks and NACO worked to make safe blood availability a reality at all times.

MEANINGS AND WORDS

1) glaring

Meaning : giving out or reflecting a strong or dazzling light.(adj)

Synonyms : blatant

Antonyms : concealed

Example : “the glaring sun”

2) transfused

Meaning : transfer (blood or its components) from one person or animal to another.

Synonyms : suffuse

Antonyms : aid

Example : “it is usual to transfuse blood screened for cytomegalovirus”

3) exposure

Meaning : the state of having no protection from something harmful.(n)

Synonyms : disclosure

Antonyms : certainty

Example :”the dangers posed by exposure to asbestos”

4) reveal

Meaning : make (previously unknown or secret information) known to others.

Synonyms : acknowledge

Antonyms : conceal

Example : “Brenda was forced to reveal Robbie’s whereabouts”

5) consent

Meaning : permission for something to happen or agreement to do something.

Synonyms : approval

Antonyms : denial

Example : “no change may be made without the consent of all the partners”

6) disclosure

Meaning : the action of making new or secret information known.

Synonyms : admission

Antonyms : concealment

Example : “a judge ordered the disclosure of the government documents”

7) donating

Meaning : give (money or goods) for a good cause, for example to a charity.

Synonyms : award

Antonyms : conceal

Example : “the proceeds will be donated to an AIDS awareness charity”

8) tragic

Meaning : causing or characterized by extreme distress or sorrow.(adj)

Synonyms : deplorable

Antonyms : blessed

Example : “the shooting was a tragic accident”

9) contacting

Meaning : communicate with (someone), typically in order to give or receive information.(v)

Synonyms : influence

Antonyms : avoidance

Example : “anyone with any information should contact Darlington police”

10) fewer

Meaning : a small number of.

Synonyms : less

Antonyms : major

Example : “may I ask a few questions?”

11) imperative

Meaning : of vital importance; crucial.

Synonyms : compulsory

Antonyms : inessential

Example : “immediate action was imperative”

12) viable

Meaning : capable of working successfully; feasible.

Synonyms : feasible

Antonyms : unlikely

Example : “the proposed investment was economically viable”

13) transmissible

Meaning : capable of working successfully; feasible.

Synonyms : conveyance

Example : “the proposed investment was economically viable”

14) diagnose

Meaning : identify the nature of (an illness or other problem) by examination of the symptoms.

Synonyms : analyze

Antonyms : miss

Example : “two doctors failed to diagnose a punctured lung”

15) awareness

Meaning : knowledge or perception of a situation or fact.

Synonyms : appreciation

Antonyms : disregard

Example : “we need to raise public awareness of the issue”

16) confirm

Meaning : establish the truth or correctness of (something previously believed or suspected to be the case).

Synonyms : affirm

Antonyms : confuse

Example : “if these fears are confirmed, the outlook for the economy will be dire”

17) precautionary

Meaning : carried out as a precaution; preventive.

Synonyms : careful

Example : “she was taken to hospital as a precautionary measure”

18) protracted

Meaning : lasting for a long time or longer than expected or usual.

Synonyms : continued

Example : “a protracted and bitter dispute”

19) encouraging

Meaning : giving someone support or confidence; supportive.

Synonyms : hopeful

Antonyms : hopeless

Example : “she gave me an encouraging smile”

38) designated

Meaning : appoint (someone) to a specified office or post.

Synonyms : nominate

Example : “he was designated as prime minister”

39) mandatory

Meaning : required by law or mandate; compulsory.(adj)

Synonyms : binding

Antonyms : optional

Example : “wearing helmets was made mandatory for pedal cyclists”

40) indicating

Meaning : required by law or mandate; compulsory.

Synonyms : announce

Antonyms : conceal

Example : “wearing helmets was made mandatory for pedal cyclists”