PARAGRAPH,WORDS AND MEANINGS

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TOPIC OF THE DAY:-“Iranian discontent”

There have been frequent and persistent reports in the Western media for several months about large-scale demonstrations and protests by Iranian people against the regime. Living conditions are difficult. Iran did not get the goodies that it expected after signing the JCPOA. Inflation is high. The Iranian rial is trading at 75,000 to the dollar. People are angry with the government. According to the well-researched work Democracy in Iran: Why It Failed and How It Might Succeed by American academic Misagh Parsa, disaffection among the people has manifested itself in several forms. Hundreds of mosques do not have imams and the attendance at Friday prayers has  dramatically. Some are converting to Christianity and, according to Professor Parsa, even to the Baha’i faith, which is the largest non-Muslim community in Iran. Professor Parsa states that there is massive corruption as well as economic inequality in Iran. All in all, he suggests that it is quite likely that there might be a revolutionary upsurge, though he is careful not to indicate any timeline for it.

MEANINGS AND WORDS

1) Denuclearisation

Meaning: To remove nuclear weapons from a place.

Example: “The documents detailing proposals for denuclearizing the region were leaked to the press”

2) Lays down

Meaning: To officially establish a rule, or to officially state the way in which something should be done.

Example: “New managers tend to lay down the law and demand total compliance with their wishes”

3) Intrusive

Meaning: Affecting someone in a way that annoys them and makes them feel uncomfortable.

Example: “Intrusive questioning”

4) Ardently

Meaning: Very enthusiastically or passionately.

Example: “Both men ardently supported the war”

5) Provocative

Meaning: Causing anger or another strong reaction, especially deliberately.

Example: “A provocative article”

Synonyms: Annoying, Irritating

Antonyms: Soothing, Calming

6) Congruence

Meaning: Agreement or harmony; compatibility.

Example: “The results show quite good congruence with recent studies”

Synonyms: Compatibility, Conformity

Antonyms: Conflict

7) Seldom

Meaning: Not often; rarely.

Example: “Islay is seldom visited by tourists”

Synonyms: Rarely, Infrequently

Antonyms: Often, Frequently

8) Dwindled

Meaning: Diminish gradually in size, amount, or strength.

Example: “Traffic has dwindled to a trickle”

Synonyms: Diminish, Decrease

Antonyms: Increase, Flourish

9) Upsurge

Meaning: An upward surge in the strength or quantity of something; an increase.

Example: “An upsurge in vandalism and violent crime”

10) Tapping

Meaning:  Exploit or draw a supply from (a resource).

Example:  “Clients from industry seeking to tap Edinburgh’s resources of expertise”

Synonyms: Use, Utilize

11) Reimposition

Meaning: The action of imposing something, especially a law or regulation, again after a lapse.

Example: ‘Any reimposition of sanctions will doom talks’

12) Render

Meaning: Cause to be or become; make.

Example: “The rains rendered his escape impossible”

Synonyms: Make, Leave

13) Oppressive

Meaning: Inflicting harsh and authoritarian treatment.

Example: “An oppressive dictatorship”

Synonyms: Harsh, Cruel

Antonyms: Lenient, Humane

14) Frustration

Meaning: The feeling of being upset or annoyed as a result of being unable to change or achieve something.

Example: “Tears of frustration rolled down her cheeks”

Synonyms: Exasperation, Annoyance

Antonyms: Satisfaction

15) Exemptions

Meaning: The action of freeing or state of being free from an obligation or liability imposed on others.

Example: “Vehicles that may qualify for exemption from tax”

Synonyms: Immunity, Exception

Antonyms: Liability