National Symbols of India in Detail


 National Symbols of India

There are 17 national symbols of India namely Tiranga, Jana Gana Mana, Saka Calendar, Vande Mataram, National Emblem of India, Mango, Ganga, Royal Bengal Tiger, Indian Banyan, Ganges River Dolphin, Indian Peacock, Indian Rupee, King Cobra, Indian Elephant, Lotus, Pumpkin and National Pledge. Here is the full list of national symbols of India.

National Symbols of India
S. No. Title National Symbols
1 National Flag Tiranga
2 National Anthem Jana Gana Mana
3 National Calendar Saka calendar
4 National Song Vande Mataram
5 National Emblem National Emblem of India
6 National Fruit Mango
7 National River Ganga
8 National Animal Royal Bengal Tiger
9 National Tree Indian Banyan
10 National Aquatic Animal Ganges River Dolphin
11 National Bird Indian Peacock
12 National Currency Indian Rupee
13 National Reptile King Cobra
14 National Heritage Animal Indian Elephant
15 National Flower Lotus
16 National Vegetable Pumpkin
17 Oath of Allegiance National Pledge

Importance of National Symbols of India

There are 17 national symbols of India. The Importance of National Symbols is given below.

1. They exemplify the rich cultural fibre that resides at the core of the country.

2. Infuse a deep sense of pride in the hearts of Indian citizens.

3. Represent a quality unique to India and its citizens.

4. Popularize the object chosen.

5. Help to preserve the chosen national symbol for generations to come.

1. National Flag of India (Tiranga)

Tiranga is the national flag of India. The flag is designed by Pingali Venkayya and was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 22nd July 1947. The top saffron colour, indicates the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The green colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947.

National Flag
National Flag of India

2. National Emblem (State Emblem of India)

The national emblem of India is adopted from Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. Its motto is Satyameva Jayate; (“Truth Alone Triumphs). It features four Asiatic lions standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. The National Emblem symbolizes power, courage, and confidence and at the bottom is a horse and a bull with beautiful wheel Dharma chakra at centre.

3. Indian National Calendar (Saka Calendar)

Saka Calendar was introduced by the Calendar Committee in 1957. The usage of the Saka Calendar was officially started on 1 Chaitra 1879 Saka Era, or 22 March 1957. As per National Calendar, the months names are as Chaitra, Vaishakh, Jyaishtha, Ashadha, Shravana, Bhadrapad, Ashwin, Kartik, Agrahayana, Pausha, Magha, and Phalguna.

National Calendar (Saka Calendar)
Months Dates
    Chaitra 21st March – 20th April
    Vaishakha 21st April – 21st May
    Jyeshtha 22nd May – 21st June
    Ashadha 22nd June – 22nd July
  Shravana 23rd July – 22nd August
    Bhadra 22nd August – 22nd September
    Became     23rd September – 22nd October
    Kartika 23rd October – 21st November
    Agrahayana 22nd November – 21st December
    Pausha 22nd December – 20th January
    Magha 21st January – 19th February
    Phalguna 20th February – 20th/21st March
National Calendar
Indian National Calendar

4. National Anthem of India (Jana Gana Mana)

The National Anthem of India Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the then-Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.

The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem.

National Anthem of India
National Anthem of India

5. National Song of India (Vande Matram)

The song of India is Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji. On January 24, 1950, the President, Dr. Rajendra Prasad came up with a statement in the Constituent Assembly, “the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honored equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it.”

The first political occasion when Vande Matram was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The song was a part of Bankimchandra’s most famous novel Anand Math (1882).

National Song
National Song of India

6. National Currency (Indian Rupee)

The Indian rupee (ISO code: INR and symbol ₹) is the official currency of the Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Indian rupee symbol is derived from the Devanagari consonant “₹” (ra) and the Latin letter “R” was adopted in 2010. It was designed by Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam. The INR depicts an equality sign that symbolizes the nation’s desire to reduce economic disparity. The design of the INR was selected from among five shortlisted symbols. According to Udaya Kumar, the design is based on the Indian tricolour.

7. National Animal of India (Bengal Tiger)

Royal Bengal Tiger is the national animal of India and ranks among the biggest cats in the world. It was adopted as the national animal of India in April 1973 due to the dwindling population of the tigers. Prior to the tiger the national animal of India was the Lion.

National Animal
National Animal of India


8. National Bird of India (Peacock)

The Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus) is the national bird of India. A bird indigenous to the subcontinent, the peacock represents the unity of vivid colors and finds references in Indian culture. The Government of India declared the Peacock as the national bird of India on February 1, 1963. It is found in the drier lowland areas and is a resident breeder across the Indian subcontinent.

National Bird
National Bird of India

9. National Aquatic Animal (Dolphin)

The Ganges river dolphin has been declared as the National Aquatic Animal of India by the Indian government. It is also the city animal of the Guwahati. The South Asian river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges, Yamuna, Chambal river, Brahmaputra river and their tributaries.

National Aquatic Animal of India
National Aquatic Animal of India

10. National Fruit (Mango)

Mango (Mangifera indica), affectionately called King of Fruits is the National fruit of India. Its sweet fragrance and delectable flavours have won the hearts of many around the world since time immemorial.  As the national fruit of India, it represents prosperity, abundance and richness in favour of the country’s image.

11. National Flower (Lotus)

The national flower of India is Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). It is an aquatic herb that is often termed as ‘Padma’ in Sanskrit and enjoys a sacred status in the Indian culture. The Lotus symbolizes spirituality, fruitfulness, wealth, knowledge, and illumination, along with purity of heart and mind.

12. National Tree (Banyan Tree)

The National tree of India is the Banyan tree, designated formally as Ficus benghalensis. The tree is often a symbol of the fabled ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ or the ‘Tree of Wish Fulfilment as it is associated with longevity and has important medicinal properties. The very size and life span of the banyan tree make it a habitat for a large number of creatures.

13. National River (Ganga)

The Ganges or the Ganga is the national river of India.  It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River. According to the Hindus, this is the most sacred river on the earth. Interestingly, the Ganga is also the longest river in India covering 2,510 km of mountains, plains and valleys. The major Indian cities through which it passes through are Varanasi, Allahabad and Haridwar.

14. National Reptile (King Cobra)

King Cobra or Snake eater (Ophiophagus hannah) is the National Reptile of India and is found in the forests of India and Southeast Asia. It is the world longest venomous snake which is capable of growing up to 19 feet and may live up to 25 years. They have the ability to inject 6 ml of venom in a single bite. It has its own cultural significance, in Hinduism King cobra is also known as Nagas and is considered as divine and worshipped Lord Shiva is often depicted with a cobra coiled around his neck.

16. National Heritage Animal (Indian Elephant)

The Indian Elephant has been declared a National Heritage Animal of India, native to mainland Asia. The Indian elephant has been listed as endangered and threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation.

17. Oath of Allegiance (National Pledge)

The National Pledge is an oath of allegiance to the Republic Of India. It is commonly recited by Indians in unison at public events, especially in schools, and during the Independence Day and Republic Day celebrations. The pledge was originally composed in the Telugu language by writer Pydimarri Venkata Subba Rao in 1962. It was first read out in a school in Visakhapatnam in 1963 and was subsequently translated into various regional languages.