TOPIC OF DAY:-“Warm, warmer: on climate change

As the 23rd conference of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn shifts into high gear, developing countries including India are focussing on the imperatives of ensuring adequate financing for mitigation and adaptation. They are moving ahead with specific instruments for loss and damage they suffer due to destructive climate-linked events. India’s progress in reducing the intensity of its greenhouse gas emissions per unit of GDP by 20-25% from 2005 levels by 2020, based on the commitment made in Copenhagen in 2009, has been positive. Early studies also suggest that it is on track to achieve the national pledge under the 2015 Paris Agreement for a 33-35% cut in emissions intensity per unit of growth from the same base year by 2030, and thus heed the 2°C warming goal. Since this performance is predicated on a growth rate of just over 7%, and the parallel target for 40% share of renewable energy by that year, the national road map is clear. What is not, however, is the impact of extreme weather events such as droughts and floods that would have a bearing on economic growth. It is in this context that the rich countries must give up their rigid approach towards the demands of low and middle income countries, and come to an early resolution on the question of financing of mitigation, adaptation and compensation. Of course, India could further raise its ambition in the use of green technologies and emissions cuts, which would give it the mantle of global climate leadership. The climate question presents a leapfrog era for India’s development paradigm. Already, the country has chalked out an ambitious policy on renewable energy, hoping to generate 175 gigawatts of power from green sources by 2022. This has to be resolutely pursued, breaking down the barriers to wider adoption of rooftop solar energy at every level and implementing net metering systems for all categories of consumers. At the Bonn conference, a new Transport Decarbonisation Alliance has been declared. It is aimed at achieving a shift to sustainable fuels, getting cities to commit to eco-friendly mobility and delivering more walkable communities, all of which will improve the quality of urban life. This presents a good template for India, building on its existing plans to introduce electric mobility through buses first, and cars by 2030. Such measures will have a beneficial effect not just on transport choices, but on public health through pollution abatement. A national law to raise the efficiency of transport could well be the answer, which the States will readily adopt if supportive financial arrangements are built in. There is some worry that an increase in coal, oil and gas production could negate some of the gains made. The record in this sphere will naturally be evaluated against India’s Paris Agreement pledge to use a combination of incentives for clean production and levies on fuel to maintain a balance.


1) Imperative

Meaning: Of vital importance; crucial.

Example: immediate action was imperative.

Synonym: Necessary, Exigent

Antonym: Inessential, Insignificant

2) Ensuring

Meaning: Make certain that (something) will occur or be the case.

Example: The client must ensure that accurate records are kept.

Synonym: Make sure, See to it

Antonym: Ignore, Neglect

3) Mitigation

Meaning: The action of reducing the severity, seriousness, or painfulness of something.

Example: The identification and mitigation of pollution.

Synonym: Alleviation, Reduction

Antonym: Increase

4) Adaptation

Meaning: The action or process of adapting or being adapted.

Example: The adaptation of teaching strategy to meet students’ needs.

Synonym: Converting, Conversion

5) Greenhouse

Meaning: A glass building in which plants that need protection from cold weather are grown.

Example: Plants were grown in a greenhouse under natural light.

Synonym: Hothouse, Conservatory

6) Heed

Meaning: Pay attention to; take notice of.

Example: He should have heeded the warnings.

Synonym: Follow, Obey

Antonym: Disregard, Ignore

7) Predicated

Meaning: Declare or affirm (something) as true or existing; postulate or assert.

Example: The Pleistocene colonization of Tasmania has long been predicated.

Synonym: Postulate, Put forward

8) Droughts

Meaning: A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water.

Example: The cause of Europe’s recent droughts.

Synonym: Deficiency, Dearth

Antonym: Excess, Surplus

9) Bearing

Meaning: The ability to tolerate something bad or to be tolerated.

Example: School was bad enough, but now it’s past bearing.

Synonym: Endurance, Endurability

10) Compensation

Meaning: Something, typically money, awarded to someone in recognition of loss, suffering, or injury.

Example: He is seeking compensation for injuries suffered at work.

Synonym: Recompense, Repayment

11) Mantle

Meaning: A covering of a specified sort.

Example: The houses were covered with a thick mantle of snow.

Synonym: Covering, Layer

12) Leapfrog

Meaning: Surpass or overtake another to move into a leading or dominant position.

Example: Attempts to leapfrog the barriers of class.

Synonym: Go over, Get past

Antonym: Decline, End

13) Paradigm

Meaning: A typical example or pattern of something; a pattern or model.

Example: Society’s paradigm of the ‘ideal woman’.

Synonym: Specimen, Sample

14) Chalked

Meaning: Write

Example: He chalked a message on the board.

15) Resolutely

Meaning: In an admirably purposeful, determined, and unwavering manner.

Example: She resolutely refused to be bullied by those around her.

16) Pursued

Meaning: Seek to attain or accomplish (a goal) over a long period.

Example: Andrew was determined to pursue a computer career.

Synonym: Engage in, Prosecute

Antonym: Leave, Give up

17) Rooftop

Meaning: The outer surface of a building’s roof.

Example: A winter view of rooftops.

18) Mobility

Meaning: The ability to move or be moved freely and easily.

Example: This exercise helps retain mobility in the damaged joints.

Synonym: Motility, Vigour

19) Template

Meaning: Something that serves as a model for others to copy.

Example: The plant was to serve as the template for change throughout the company.

Synonym: Model, Pattern

20) Abatement

Meaning: The action of abating or being abated; ending or subsiding.

Example: This trend shows no sign of abatement.

Synonym: Subsiding, Dying away

Antonym: Rise, Increase

21) Negate

Meaning: Make ineffective; nullify.

Example: The existence of packet loss does not negate the viability for storage traffic over IP.

Synonym: Rebut, Refute

Antonym: Allow, Approve

22) Levies

Meaning: Impose (a tax, fee, or fine)

Example: A tax of two per cent was levied on all cargoes.

Synonym: Impose, Charge