STATIC GK (FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS)

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6 Fundamental Rights of Indian Constitution

Originally, the Indian Constitution provided 7 Fundamental Rights which have now been revised to 6 Fundamental Rights which are as follows-:

  1. Right to equality (Articles 14–18)
  2. Right to freedom (Articles 19–22)
  3. Right against exploitation (Articles 23–24)
  4. Right to freedom of religion (Articles 25–28)
  5. Cultural and educational rights (Articles 29-30)
  6. Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32-35)

The right to property was deleted from the list of Fundamental Rights of the Constitution by the 44th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1978 and made a legal right under Article 300-A in Part 12 of the Indian Constitution.

Fundamental Rights Articles
1. Right to equality (a) Article 14 – Equal protection of laws and Equality before law.

(b) Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, caste, sex, place of birth or race.

(c) Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in terms of public employment.

(d) Article 17 – Abolition of untouchability and prohibition of its practice.

(e) Article 18 – Abolition of titles except military and academic.

2. Right to freedom (a) Article 19 – Protection of six rights regarding freedom of:

(i) speech and expression,

(ii) assembly,

(iii) association,

(iv) movement,

(v) residence, and

(vi) profession

(b) Article 20 – Protection in a conviction for offences.

(c) Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty.

(d)Article 21A –  Right to elementary education.

(e) Article 22 –  Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

3.  Right against exploitation (a) Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in forced labour and human beings.

(b) Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children in Companies and factories, etc.

4. Right to freedom of religion (a) Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.

(b) Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.

(c) Article 27 – Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any religion or religious affairs.

(d) Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction or worship in certain educational institutions

5. Cultural and educational rights (a) Article 29 – Protection of language, script and culture of minorities.

(b) Article 30 – Rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

6. Right to constitutional remedies (a) Article 32 – Right to move the Supreme Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights including the writs of

  1. Habeas corpus,
  2. Mandamus,
  3. Prohibition,
  4. Certiorari,
  5. Quo Warranto

(b) Article 33 – Provides the Parliament with the authority to limit or abolish the fundamental rights of “Members of the Armed Forces, paramilitary forces, police forces, intelligence agencies, and analogous forces”.

(c) Article 34 – Provides for the restrictions on fundamental rights while martial law(military rule) is in force.

(d) Article 35 – Empowers the Parliament to make laws on Fundamental Rights.

Fundamental Rights for Indian Citizens and Not for Foreigners

Articles Fundamental Rights
Article 15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
Article 16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Article 19. Protection of six rights regarding freedom of :
(i) speech and expression,
(ii) assembly,
(iii) association,
(iv) movement,
(v) residence, and
(vi) profession
Article 21 Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

Fundamental Rights for both Indian Citizens and Foreigners

There are some other rights in Indian Constitution which are applicable to both Indian and foreign citizens. These are discussed below:

Articles Fundamental Rights
Article 14 Equality before the law and equal protection of laws
Article 20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences
Article 21 Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 21A Right to elementary education
Article 22 Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
Article 23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
Article 24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc.
Article 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
Article 26 Freedom to manage religious affairs.
Article 27 Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any religion
Article 28 Freedom from attending religious instruction or worship in certain educational institutions)